Monday, September 30, 2019

The State of Florida

The State of Florida has a professional body that implements the legislations that pertain to the practice of mental health counseling in the state. The Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage & Family Therapy & Mental Health Counseling award licenses to mental health professionals who seek to practice in the state of Florida. The board determines whether the educational credentials, training and experience of the applicant pass the standards and requirements set by the board and the legislated regulation of mental health professionals. The board also has the authority to suspend and revoke licenses when the professional has been found to have committed actions which violates the ethical guidelines identified by the board. According to the State of Florida’s statute of clinical counseling and psychotherapy (State of Florida, 2007), the legislation of regulating and professions and occupations prevents the unqualified mental health professionals from practicing in Florida and protects the public from poorly trained professionals who may become threat to the health and well-being of the public. The state has recognized that the quality of life at present has been undergoing changes and that emotional and psychological health is directly related to physical health. It is presumed that the public needs qualified mental health professionals who could provide services to the public in order to maintain their mental health, thus qualified professionals should be given the recognition and authority to engage in legitimate practice. Becoming a duly licensed mental health professional would imply that the state recognizes one’s ability and skills and the public would be assured that they will be getting quality care. The state categorizes the mental health professionals according to clinical social work, marriage and family therapy and mental health counseling. The distinctions are made to clearly identify the area of specialization and clientele of the said professions, although a dual license is available for those who are qualified to practice in two of the three categories. The licensure requirements for mental health counseling are different for students who have undergone training in a Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited institutions and for non-CACREP institutions. Aside from the completion of a master’s degree in mental health related courses, the applicant must also have about 2 years of post-master’s experience in the field of counseling under a licensed supervisor. The non-CACREP graduate must satisfy the required hours and units to meet the required instruction and training on counseling theories and practice, human growth and development; diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology; human sexuality, group theories and practice, individual evaluation and assessment, career and lifestyle assessment, research and program evaluation, social and cultural foundations, counseling in community settings and substance abuse and in ethical, legal and professional standards ( The requirements for licensing in social work and marriage and family therapy also specifies the hours and units of graduate work and courses in the specific field. An integral requirement is the completion of the internship hours under a certified supervisor in the said specialization. With this in mind, I found that the university curriculum matches the required training and education that the state licensing asks for and I was happy to note that the university is also CACREP accredited indicating that I just need to complete all the required courses and practicum and I can probably apply for the licensure. At present I have no plans of pursuing a doctoral degree in mental health counseling, I think I am more inclined to finish this master’s degree at the moment. I am 43 years old and I have 3 kids which mean that I do not have the energy to go through another 3 years for the doctoral degree. However, I am still open to the idea if after this degree I might change my mind and get that Ph.D. References Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage & Family Therapy & Mental Health Counseling (2004). Retrieved October 17, 2007 from 2007 Florida Statutes, Chapter 491 Clinical and Counseling and Psychotherapy Services, Retrieved October 17, 2007 from Â   Â   Â  

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Production function

No matter the objective of any business organization, achievement of efficiency in production or cost minimization for a given production activity appear to be one of the prime concern of the managers In the manager's effort to minimize production costs, the fundamental questions he or she faces are: (f) How can production be optimized or costs minimizes? (g) What will be the behavior of output as inputs increase? (h) How does technology help In reducing production costs? 0) How can the least-cost combination of Inputs be achieved? J) Given the technology, what happens to the rate of return when more plants are added to the firm? The Theory of Production Production theory generally deals with quantitative relationships, that is, technical and technological relationships between inputs, especially labor and capital, and between inputs and outputs. An Input Is a good or service that goes Into the production process. As economists refer to It, an Input Is simply anything which a firm bu ys for use In Its production process. An output, on the other hand, is any good or service that comes out of a production process.Economists classified inputs as (I) labor; (II) capital; land; (iv) raw materials; and, (v) time. These variables are measured per unit of time and once referred to as flow variables. In recent times, entrepreneurship has been added as part of the production Inputs, though this can be measured by the managerial expertise and the ability to make things happen. Inputs are classified as either fixed or variable Inputs. Fixed and variable inputs are defined in both economic sense and technical sense. In economic sense, a fixed input is one whose supply is inelastic in the short run.In technical sense, a fixed input is one that remains fixed (or constant) for certain level of output. A variable input is one whose supply in the short run is elastic, example, labor, raw terrestrial, and the like. Users of such inputs can employ a larger quantity in the short run . Technically, a variable Input Is one that changes with changes In output. In the long run, all Inputs are variable 3. 1 The Production Function Production function is a tool of analysis used in explaining the input-output relationship. It describes the technical relationship between inputs and output in physical terms.In its general form, it holds that production of a given commodity depends on certain specific Inputs. In Its specific form, it presents the quantitative relationships between Inputs and outputs. A production function may take the form f a schedule, a graph line or a curve, an algebraic equation or a mathematical model. The production function represents the technology of a firm. An empirical production function is generally so complex to include a wide range of inputs: land, labor, capital, raw materials, time, and technology.These variables form the Independent variables In a firm's actual production function. A firm's long- run production function Is of the form: where Old = land and building; L = labor; K = capital; M = materials; T = technology; and, t = time. For sake of convenience, economists have reduced the number of variables used in a reduction function to only two: capital (K) and labor (L). Therefore, in the analysis of input-output relations, the production function is expressed as: Q = f(K, L) (3. 1. 2) Equation (3. . 2) represents the algebraic or mathematical form of the production function. It is this form of production function which is most commonly used in production analysis. As implied by the production function (equation (3. 1. 2)), increasing production, Q, will require K and L, and whether the firm can increase both K and L or only L will depend on the time period it takes into account for increasing production, that is, whether he firm is thinking in terms of the short run or in terms of the long run.Economists believe that the supply of capital (K) is inelastic in the short run and elastic in the long run. Thus, in the short run firms can increase production only by increasing labor, since the supply of capital is fixed in the short run. In the long run, the firm can employ more of both capital and labor, as the supply of capital becomes elastic over time. In effect, there exists two types of production functions: The short-run production function; and, The long-run production function

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Non-Verbal Behaviour and Gestures in “A Streetcar Names Desire” Essay

Task: Tennessee Williams uses very specific and detailed stage directions to indicate the emotions, thoughts and actions of his characters. Select a character from the play and discuss how his/her gestures and non-verbal behaviour serves to further reveal his/her personality traits. You might also add how his/her behaviour relates to the surroundings and cultural setting. The essay is based on Scenes 1 and 2. Word limit: 800 Tennessee Williams uses very specific and detailed stage directions to indicate the emotions, thoughts and actions of his characters in his famous play â€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire†. We communicate with much more than words. Most of the messages we send other people are nonverbal, these include our facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice. The ability to portrait nonverbal communication in a play, or body language, is a powerful tool which can be utilized by any author to enhance the reading experience and give the play, even though it is just on paper in words and not enacted a deeper setting and a more natural interaction with the character. It acts like an unconscious language that broadcasts the character’s true feelings and intentions at any given moment. Blanche DuBois is no different in this respect to the extent that her actions speak more for her than she does verbally, considering her being a very talkative person. In the first Scene Blanche arrives at Elysian Fields to visit her Sister Stella, here the first sign of non-verbal behaviour can be observed. Blanche gives Eunice, the co-owner of Stella’s house and up-stair neighbour, a peculiar look as she enters the house, which she first doubted to believe was in fact her Sister’s due to its weathered grey and raffish appearance. This immediately causes a reaction on Eunice’ part resulting in a defensive tone of voice. â€Å"EUNICE [defensively, noticing BLANCHE’S look]: It’s sort of messed up right now but when it’s clean it’s real sweet.† – pg. 4 The defensive tone and the knowledge of Blanche’s â€Å"look† reveals that Blanche is used to living in a clean home, perhaps a bigger one with no neighbour on the second floor. It gives the reader the impression that she feels she has entered a house not up to her standards. This awareness directly influences the way the reader reads the next line, Blanche’s reply. â€Å"BLANCHE: Is it?† – pg. 4 Even though the author has not indicated a particular tone, the reader automatically may jump to a sarcastic one, developing the reader’s first impression of Blanche further solely due to the non-verbal message sent by Eunice through her tone of voice. The next instance is fully described by Tennessee Williams in one of his many stage directions right after Eunice leaves to hustle up Stella and tell her that her Sister Blanche has arrived. Alone in the house now, â€Å"Blanche sits in a chair very stiffly and her shoulders slightly hunched and her legs pressed close together and her hands tightly clutching her purse as if she were quite cold.† – pg. 5 Her posture exposes her inner feeling towards the situation and new environment she currently is in. She feels awkward in this estranged, messy house; her hunched shoulders and pressed legs expression anxiety and uneasy adaptation to the location. Her clutching her purse, valuable belongings, may also display intimidation or mistrust to a certain extent, but this is not directly hinted by the author. Perhaps it is her next action that plays a crucial part in understanding Blanche or having a better idea of the kind of person she really is. â€Å"†¦she begins to slowly look around. (†¦) Suddenly she notices something in a half-opened closet. She springs up and crosses to it, and removes a whisky bottle. She pours a half tumbler of whisky and tosses it down. She carefully replaces the bottle and washes the tumbler at the sink. Then she resumes her seat in front of the table.† – pg. 5 This short action tells us a number of different things about Blanche; she is a secretive and cautious person, she washes the glass and replaces the bottle to its original place as if nothing had happened. She does not feel guilty of using the situation to her advantage, she enjoys it. And last but not least, the reader is hinted at that she is not the person she may seem to be from the perspectives of the other characters; she is the secret alcoholic, addict without a strong se nse of self control. Later on in Scene two Blanche reveals another facet to her character – she flirts with Stella’s husband Stanley Kowalski and later even tells her about it. But that is verbal; the non-verbal component to this is in the stage directions: â€Å"[She sprays herself with her atomizer; then playfully sprays him (Stanley) with it. He seizes the atomizer and slams it down on the dresser. She throws back her head and laughs.]† I am not sure whether one would describe â€Å"playfully spraying† as a gesture, but either way it is non-verbal and leads to the direct assumption that Blanch is in fact flirting with her Sister’s husband, quite openly. It is something that usually people simply don’t do; it tells the reader that she is a character with a weak moral stem and an interest for men which outweighs her social values and family relationships. Her body language as she â€Å"throws back her head† also points towards feeling comfortable and not intimidated under Stanley’s presence and insinuates a further relation with him that may come out later on in the play. The significance of this is not yet known at the end of Scene 2, but it leads the reader to believe she may have an eye out for her Sister’s husband. The non-verbal behaviour and gestures throughout the first two Scenes of this play are more important than one may imagine. They give depth to every characters personality traits and have a direct impact on the way the reader categorizes them and in turns the tone the reader then reads their lines in.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Research paper on rwanda Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

On rwanda - Research Paper Example The earliest ‘residents’ are thought to be a group of Pygmy hunters and gatherers, labeled the Twa. After the Twa settled, it is believed that the Hutus, agriculturists, and the Tutsis also settled in. By the 15th century, evidence shows that the Hutu and Tutsi, both of the Bantu tribe, had organized themselves into states (Melvern, 2006), and thus the Rwandan civilization came into being. One of these states, the Rwabuguri, was the most powerful and maintained control until well into the 19th century. It expanded both geographically and demographically, spreading agricultural techniques and political control. While the military was never a strong means of achieving control, it was used at times against other well-developed states such as Gisaka and Burundi. Soon, economic disparity between the Hutus and the Tutsis became apparent leading to divisions. The Tutsi population emerged with a Mwami (king), who the Rwandans were made to pay tribute to and who controlled much o f the Rwandan land (Melvern, 2006). Moreover, the Tutsis were given many of the important positions in the government. Despite the disparity in control and power, Rwanda did not see any ethnic strife in its pre-colonial administration. It was only when it became a colonial administration that relations between these two tribes, the Hutus and the Tutsis became contentious (Melvern, 2006). Colonial History Early 20th century saw Germany and Belgian colonialism in Rwanda (Cooper, 2002). Unfortunately, this was also an epoch where Germany, like much of Europe, had become fixated on racial differences and soon, they seemed to be favoring the Tutsis against the Hutus since the former were more European in appearance and more inclined to take on the Catholic faith. Therefore, the Tutsis were elevated to higher statuses in the administration and Hutus were routinely oppressed. Soon, many Rwandans started resenting Belgian occupation and formed secret organizations to throw out the Belgians and gain liberation. They resisted reforms by the Belgian administration and in the second half of the 20th century, Pan-Africanism culture spread through Africa and demands of anti-colonialism were made. The final straw came when, in 1962, the last Mwami died and it was believed to have been killed by Belgians. In anger, the Hutus drove out the Belgians soon, the Hutu Emancipation Movement gained power and drove out the Tutsis and killed many of them in revenge for the oppression they had been dealt with (Mamdani, 2002). Post-Independence History to Present The Tutsi refugees started their own party, the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) and in 1990, the RPF invaded and forced the president to sign a treaty that stated that Hutus and Tutsis would share power (Broch-Due, 2005). After a mass genocide in which 800,000 Tutsis were killed and one-tenth of the population was wiped out (Cohen, 2007) relative peace was seen in Rwanda. The RPF invaded the country and put in place a government with representation from both Hutu and Tutsi fronts. The President was Hutu, and the Vice-President was a Tutsi. Moreover, over 900,000 people had fled Rwanda to

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Customer recruitment and retention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Customer recruitment and retention - Essay Example Apart from this, the existing customers should also be paid regular attention, so that they remain loyal to not only iPad but to Apple Inc. 1) The main motive of Apple Inc. is to create products through innovation. Apple focuses on the emotions of its customers. The brand tries to show passion, hopes, aspirations and dreams through their products. Apple has created a unique position for itself in the market for its excellent designs. So it can be said that Apple Inc. was popular even before the launch of iPad. 2) The product offered a good battery life. A good battery life is very important for people from business class as they have can use it while travelling. It is small, light weight and easy to handle. IT also comes with a warranty from Apple Inc. Apart from this; the customers also view iPad as a high quality niche product. So an Apple IPad would be received by the customers as a status symbol (Apple Inc., 2012). 4) IPad has received the first mover advantage because the tablet concept was new at the time, when iPad was launched. Moreover, the product is eco-friendly and made from recyclable materials. It would attract more buyers, especially who are environment conscious. 5) Newer and more advanced version of iPad has been launched to offer better technology to the customers. IPad now has a retina display, with higher resolution. It is the only tablet which will offer 1080 HD resolution. So it can be said that Apple iPad would offer much better display than its previous version ((McWhinnie, 2012). 1) In order to retain customers for iPad, Apple Inc has to first remove certain limitations in the product. The iPad is not having any camera and two applications cannot be run simultaneously. These are few functions that the competitors are offering and Apple has to improvise the iPad accordingly. 2) The people using the iPads should be offered free versions of newly launched applications like

Selling of body organs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Selling of body organs - Essay Example   1. There are thousands of people dying around the world for not getting a suitable donor. There are many ailments and accidents which require body organs like kidney, liver part, eye ball or intestine. So if a person is willing to sell their body organ for the benefit of other, then many people can be saved from death 1. Many people hesitate to sell their body organ for the fear of it being unsafe. The body organs are removed by means of surgery and people may lose their life or can impair their health during the medical procedure. People do not have to be afraid of donating their body organs as the removal of organ and its tissue makes it a safe medical process 2. Today most of the organ removal surgery is a safe procedure. Technology has advanced well enough to make this medical process safe. The people have a notion that if they lose one of kidney or part of liver or intestine can make them ill. However one kidney is enough for a human to survive and liver does grow so there is no issue with it being removed. 1. The selling of body parts is an illegal business around the world. There is large opportunity for body organs however the illegal trafficking of the body organs and the crimes involved in it makes it an illegal affair. However, the absence of a legitimate marker is the reason why the sale of body organ is facing problem. 2. Government need to understand the potential of sale of body organ and make it a legitimate process which would also decrease the criminality involved with it. There is nothing illegal about sale of body organ if it is not damaging the health of the donor and would give them a financial boost and save lives of people. 1. Sale of body organ is a beneficial medical process and can save lives of many people around the world. The body organs like kidney, liver portion, eyeball or intestine part can be a saleable organ which can save people in need of them. However, the people are scared of surgery and risk

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Fundamentals of Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fundamentals of Economics - Essay Example Aside from prices, there are a host of factors that may either push for an upward or downward effect on the volume of demand or supply exerted towards the market. Among the determinants for demand include taste and preference of consumers, income level of consumers, availability of substitute products, and population. For supply, the determinants include, but are not limited to, production cost, taxes and subsidies, number of producers or suppliers, available technology, and prices of substitutes. Applying some principles in marketing, demand can further be described or categorized as latent demand, and effective demand. While consumers may want to have a number of units of a particular commodity constituting the latent demand for that commodity, only consumers who have the capacity to pay for that commodity at a price level producers are willing to supply will constitute the effective demand. Elasticity, on the other hand, can be simply defined as the degree of change on the volume of demand or supply of a particular product in relation to changes in the behavior of its determinants. For example, a product that has an elastic demand is a product whose volume or quantity being demanded in the market has increased tremendously due to a lower tag price offer in the market. At the same time, such product with elastic demand would have a tremendous decrease in volume of quantity demanded should its price suddenly becomes a bit more than what it previously offered to the market. In other words, elasticity can be described or defined as the degree of changes in the volume of quantity demanded or supplied given the degree of changes in its determinants. Elasticity determined by changes in prices has been referred to as price elasticity, as shown in the example that has been mentioned above. Demand or supply behavior that

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Business Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Innovation - Essay Example The companys goals and culture are embedded into the actual design and management of its facilities (Fitzgerald, 2001). For instance, the company’s buildings have large windows, warm colors and fabrics, open floor plans, recreation areas and fitness centers. This enables the company to connect indirectly with its employees while providing an environment that allows for a more productive and interactive workforce. The companys catch phrase too, Connecting People, is symbolic of the culture, which helps define the purpose of its physical facilities. Their culture encourages employee participation through open discussions and debates. Nokia’s culture promotes good communications, which is integrated into every day interaction with and between employees (Nokia, 2006). They have performance-management system, called Investing in People (IIP) involves discussions between employees and their managers, twice a year. They have flexible working hours, study leave and health-care services and recreational activities (HRM Digest). Another company having innovative culture is Procter & Gamble (P&G), America’s biggest maker of household products. There is a shift in P&G’s culture from a conservative, slow-moving, bureaucratic attitude to a modern, fast-moving, internet-savvy organization (CorporateWatch, 2006). They have introduced a new system of attracting the right talents in its fold with a view to make faster and better decisions, cut red tape, reduce costs of systems and procedure while setting more aggressive sales goals. Go, Give and Grow is a scheme that has struck chord with the youth. This scheme gives the graduates the opportunity to make their personal contribution to humanitarian projects before they start their career with P&G (HRMID, 2006). The new graduates selected for employment with P&G get a chance to work for 12 months in a developing country with the World Health Organization (WHO) or Unicef.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Controlling Child Pornography on the Usenet Article

Controlling Child Pornography on the Usenet - Article Example So it is easily understandable that anonymity serves as the key for such criminals, which they feasibly use as a protective shell. The catch-22 is that the complete censorship of CP on Usenet cannot be implemented easily since that is somewhat impossible without banning the internet because Usenet is basically served by the internet. And why just strike out a war against Usenet when the percentage of CP on the internet is basically even larger? The cutting truth is, pornography can never be simply rooted out and finished forever since it really grows vigorously. Amidst darkness, the scintillating hope is that lately many Usenet communities have been reported to be curbed after important measures observed at the Government level. Internet Service Providers have been forced to shut down Usenet access at many places in order to cut down the incessant demand of child porn. Cuomo crackdown is a well known open war happening against the erotic newsgroups of Usenet. â€Å"NY State attorney Andrew Cuomo has managed to get two more ISPs to join his ‘Crusade’ against Usenet child porn.† (Roettgers, 2008). America Online is among the ISPs who have agreed to do something about blocking CP and once it denies access to newsgroup servers, the Usenet is sure to become a less attractive magnet for cybercriminals. Another fact supporting the rampage against Usenet is that Recording Industry Association of America sued Usenet for trillions of dollars, criticizing it as the network of illicit file sharing sites. Still saying that cyber censo rship alone can play a vital role in stemming down CP is not actually true, since a large number of new Usenet groups and web servers are created daily.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

How Traditional Family Cultural Survive in the Future Essay Example for Free

How Traditional Family Cultural Survive in the Future Essay Traditional businesses are essential and important for a country. These reveals the lovely culture and habits of nation. These are the most attractive places where foreigners visit whenever they arrive to the land. Foreigners also buy traditional products which is difficult to be bought in their places and be placed at their home for their arrival and remembrances of the places where they visited. Not only for foreigners but also for local people, traditional products show how a person love culture and tradition of that nation. They play an important role in the standard of nation, so it is impossible for them to be disappeared although they get a little way to success. When a country becomes more developed, there is a lesser number of traditional business. The other business are favored and traditional businesses are transformed into these businesses because they are relatively more easy to succeed and can get more profit. Traditional businesses are made by humans and cannot be substituted by others. Therefore, they are too expensive for basic people to buy and use them. The other substituted things are processed by machines and standardized. They produce in large quantities and get economy of scale and can be sold in low price. The basic choose the cheaper one for their daily use how much they love their tradition. But the country is based on basic class, not on upper class. The demands go down and traditions have to depend on foreigners and upper class, especially. There is a little chance for every traditional culture business to survive although it cannot be disappeared from the market. All have to transform and innovate new things. Their management style, production process orientation have to be upgraded. Almost all traditional businesses are sole traders. Their finances, profession and ability to do are limited. Only the person who leads the business decide what to do, how to do and who have to do. The other member are not included in the decision, the other members of the family or the floor workers. They have to change this because ones profession is limited, the decision may be very fast but may not be as good as one deciding by many. They do not have any accurate documents. Some only have Cash Book, Debtors book and Creditors book. They never draw any financial statement and never check their income and expenses. Some firms may not have any of these, they keep the cash to the drawers when something is sold. And at the end of the day, they keep it to the drawer. And also their pricing, they set the price above the cost of production. Prices are not set stable. Customer has to have full knowledge to get goods with right price. The production processes are made to be smooth. Not all the processes let human make. Making traditional things must be made by human but aided by machine. It can lessen time, make lower cost of production and can control the quality. Machines are more accurate than human. For example, in the process of making pots, they are fired with woods by humans. Instead of this ovens can be replaced. They can be fired with accurate temperature and woods do not need. It can lessen the cost and wages can be reduced. To do these, technology is the key point. Nowadays, we do business in production orientation. We do the best, but we do not know what the customers need, we do not find what they want from us. We have to change into marketing orientation. We must find out what customer needs, how can we fulfill their wish. We have to research on the market. People are bored when they get the only one thing. They always want newest thing, they always seek in us. We have to make innovation based on the tradition. It is important to have great care not missing tradition. foreigners are main customers for the traditional market. Although we can produce the products, we are weak in market distribution. so, we should need organization to improve traditional business. we should make internet website about traditional business. we should make knowledge distribution of tradition to the local. we should connect with travel tourism .so ,they introduce to visit our industry. And we explain the production process step by step thoroughly .we should create the design update. In traditional job, main problem is rare raw material. If we meet this problem , we should think the another way to substitute with other.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Lego strategic analysis

Lego strategic analysis Introduction: This essay will consider firstly the position of Lego in relation to both the constraints of the internal and external environment in the lead up to 2004. The essay will then go on to consider the position of the Lego group from 2005 onwards paying particular attention to how the company has reacted to adapt its internal resources in order to meet the needs of the external environment. The Lego group up to 2004: In 2004 the Lego group was under the leadership of CEO Kjeld Kirk Kristiansen, the company faced a large number of problems including posting a loss for the year of DKK 1,800m despite a group turnover of DKK 6,295m. As a result Kristiansen stepped down from the chiromancy and deposited a further DKK 800,000 of personal funds into the company. Despite these headline figures the problems facing the Lego group in 2004 many be considered has having a longer history than the single year of such great losses and be routed in both problems in the internal and external environment. Five Forces Analysis Porter (2004) outlines five forces which have an impact upon a business coming from the external environment and include the following elements which will now be considered individually: Level of rivalry Power of buyers Power of suppliers Threat of substitutes Threat of entrants Level of rivalry The overall level of rivalry may be seen as relatively intense for the Lego group in the run up until the end of 2004. Whilst Lego occupies a strong position in the market for construction toys with relatively few rivals one must consider that Lego is now competing in boarder market of childrens entertainment which in the lead up to 2004 began in include large incumbents from the electronics sector such as Sega and Nintendo. Power of buys The power of the buyer in the case of Lego may be seen as relatively high with low switching costs between alternative toys and even substitute products such as video games and television. Power of suppliers The power of suppliers may be seen as average, Legos products on the whole may be seen as largely based upon standardised inputs such as plastics and chemicals. There is the consideration that were Lego chooses to move into non-traditional areas such as sets associated with films or games the power of suppliers will increase as a key input becomes that of licences which is a form of intellectual property. Threat of substitutes This may be seen as the largest threat to the Lego group in the run up to the end of 2004. Although it is difficult to define what market a company occupies (Grant 2008, Porter 2004) for the purpose of considering the impact of substitution one must consider Lego to be a provider of childrens entertainment. In this case the threat from substitutes are rather high given that consumers may substitute between alternative traditional toys such as action figures or toy cars through to electronic products such as video games and television. Threat of new entrants The threat of new entrants into both the smaller traditional toys market and the wider childrens entrainments market may be seen as relatively low in the run up until 2004 largely for similar reasons. In order to enter these markets there is the requirement for significantly high levels of investment in both the form of capital investments and research and development costs both of which act as barriers to entry and thus restrict the number of new entrants (Porter 2004). SWOT analysis A key tool in considering the overall strategic fit is that of a SWOT analysis, a SWOT analysis considers both a companys internal elements (Strengths and Weaknesses) and attempts to considers how these factors fit against the external elements of Opportunities and Threats (Lynch 2008). Strengths Legos key strengths may be seen as coming from both its brand recognition and its ability to use innovative technology without moving away from the companys core values. Whilst there are many other competitors in the toy or childrens entertainment market Lego remains the brand of choice in the field of construction toys despite the fall of other long term historical brand such as Meccano (VA 2010) and the rise of alternative substitute products such as video games (BBC News 2004). As the case study indicates despite the traditional nature of the Lego offering the company has a strong association with contemporary IT, design and manufacturing systems which help to make the product both more durable as well as helping to reduce manufacturing costs thus making the field of technology as key strength for the business. Weaknesses Legos key weakness in the run up to 2004 may be seen as two fold. Firstly the company has failed in a key area of the understanding of marketing in regard to understanding the needs of their customers which may be seen as the focal point of the marketing concept (Brassington and Pettitt 2007). This can be clearly seen in the role out of the Explorer range, in this case the company designed a product which failed to appeal to those who were not buying Lego products but subsequently didnt meet the needs of those who were buying the current Lego products. The second weakness of the Lego group in the run up to the changes at the end of 2004 may be seen as the lack of ability to translate key corporate strengths and innovations into implemented strategies. Such considerations are demonstrated by Legos initial development of such innovative actions such as programmable parts for its Technic range as far back as 1986 but a contradictory failure to react to further developments in manufactur ing processes such as CAM and CAD or product developments such as those associated with video games until much later. Opportunities and Threats The opportunities and threats to Lego in the run up until the end of 2004 may be seen as indivisibly linked representing a threat or opportunity based upon Legos reaction to the element hence they will be considered together. The largest threat to Lego may be seen as the changing nature of the market in the run up until 2004. Whilst Lego has remained the market leader in construction toys there must be the consideration that for a large part there has been a decline in the overall market for traditional toys has children have increasingly substituted to alternative forms of entrainments largely in the electronics sector. Despite the threat to Legos core product offering in this trend in the run up to 2004 there was also a significant opportunity for Lego to use such threats as opportunities to generate spine of sales in the form of Lego sets associated with games and films as well as the development of non-traditional Lego products presenting Lego with the opportunity to diversify (Johnson et al 2008). Previous to 2004 Lego had already made some diversifications into the areas of direct retails with its Lego stores and the opening of its Lego Land amusement parks, this however represented at the time a co nsiderable opportunity for further development. The Lego group 2005 and beyond: This section will now consider the position of Lego from 2005 onwards and as such will attempt to consider how Lego has adapted to the issues highlighted as facing the company in the run up to and including 2004. In the first instance one should consider that at the start of 2005 Lego started with a new CEO and by the end of the year posted a profit of DKK 214 a figure which has since risen in 2008 to DKK 1,352. Structure: In the first instance the structure of the Lego group may be seen as changing significantly since 2004. The first change for the companys structure may be seen as beginning with the appointment of a new CEO an action which may be seen as both a large pragmatic change for any organisation but also a significant one from a symbolic perspective (Mullins 2009). Such a change has allowed Lego to re-define its operations allowing the company to move into new diversified markets such as the use of the Lego brand in relation to computer games and the production of traditional sets which are related to television and cinematic spin offs. Other structural changes relate to the companies operations, operations in counties with relatively high labour costs such as Europe and the US have been outsourced to companies in Singapore and Mexico respectively. In addition the companys operations in the Czech Republic whilst remaining under the ownership of the Lego group have been put under the day to day management of the companies joint venture partner Flextronics. These structural changes which have taken place within Legos operational function have allowed the company to make significant savings in labour costs. Despite these advantages there must also be the consideration that there are some draw backs. In outsourcing production there is the consideration that Lego will lose some of the control it had over its operations previously (Slack 2009), this is a key consideration for Lego as the success of the company and its brand has previously relied on a high association with good quality, something which may be damaged if ou tsourcing is not managed correctly. HR: The companys HR policy may be seen as a true test of the organisations wider values against a back drop of changing economic conditions. On the one hand the companys policies may be seen as facilitation an organisation which values organisational learning and development through the medium of its staff. Such considerations can be seen in the specific deployment of such policies of continuous improvement which is a key contributor to the companys high standards for product quality. Despite this following such heavy losses in 2004 Lego made significant reductions of staff from 5,604 in 2004 to a low of 4,199 in 2007 a figure which has since recovered dramatically to 5,388 in 2008. As such the company may be seen as demonstrating that whilst its organisational values are key to its success reductions will be made to adapt to market conditions were necessary. Another contradiction that one may consider is that the company in the case study maintains that it will meet the legal requiremen ts as a minimum in relation to its operations. This raises two concerns in the first case there is the consideration that all companies should in theory meet these minimum standards in any case and so this doesnt really form a policy so much as a statement of the obvious. In the second instance Lego in recent years has outsourced a considerable amount of its operations to areas such as the Far East were HR standards are often much lower (Hutchings 2001). One may consider that in these cases if Lego only aims to meet minimum standards then the policies outlined in earlier paragraphs represent an attempt to present the company in a positive light to consumers rather than attempt to create a genuine learning organisation. Culture/Values: Despite the changes which have been made since 2004 one may consider that such changes have not been at the expense of the companys wider culture and corporate values. In the lead up until 2004 the Lego group may be seen as largely having a corporate cultured built around offering a high quality differentiated product (Jobber 2007) in which the experience of the child as an end user is the key consideration. Despite branching out into alternative products Lego has maintained its commitment to product quality and key concepts such as not promoting war related themes in its product portfolio. From a innovation perspective one may see that Lego previous to 2004 had the technical abilities associated with an innovative culture however in more recent years one may see that the company has been much more successful at moving such innovations from the ideas stage into the implemented strategy stage. IT/Innovation: One of Legos key strategies since the restructuring of the company at the end of 2004 has been the companys attitude towards IT and innovation. In adapting to the new business environment Lego may be seen as adopting two key strategies in relation to innovation and technology. Firstly the company has used new forms of technology for internal manufacturing processes. Such innovations include the use of computer modelling and computer aided design and have allowed the company to speed up the design process as well as well as maintain the companys values in relation to quality and manufacturing tolerances which contribute to the consumer experience. Secondly the company has used IT and innovation in diversifying its product ranges, such innovations have seen adaptations of Legos traditional lines to incorporate more electronic features through to the outright diversification into new product areas such as computer games based upon a Lego theme or using the Lego brand. Such diversifications may be seen as providing a key hedge against the risk which is inherent in operating with a lower level of diversification (De Witt and Meyer 2004). From a strategic perspective this also shows the recognition on the behalf of Lego executives of the need to compete in a wider market than merely that of traditional childrens toys. As such the element of innovation may be seen as one of the most important elements in the turnaround of the companys fortunes since the end of 2004. Conclusions: Having considered the research there are a number of conclusions that may be drawn. Firstly in considering Legos potion previous to 2005 one could argue that the company had a strong set of internal resources but had failed to respond to changing external considerations in the market. The result of such a lack of strategic fit ultimately put the company in a relatively weak financial position generating substantial losses in 2004. Following the appointment of a new chairman in 2005 the company has successfully turned its fortunes around seeing that the key strengths of the company in the form of brand, technological innovation and corporate values have been used to create a strategic fit which matches the challenges of the contemporary business environment. One may take the view that whilst Lego will face significant challenges in the future due to the continuing nature of changes in the market the company has not adapted its structure and processes so as to be able to deal with such challenges successfully in the future.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Report on the Art and Architecture of the Cathedral of St. Stephen in A

1.0 Introduction The purpose of this report is to outline the art and architecture of the Cathedral of St. Stephen and compare it to other churches around the world. It is also designed to analyse the aspects of St. Stephen’s architecture and its attempts to capture some of the unique experiences of people in Australia. Also analysed was how a Catholic community can impact the identity of its parishioner as well as the importance of belonging to a Catholic parish. The report finally concludes by looking at different universal understandings on the meaning what is a church. 2.0 Survey 1. The word cathedral means: The seed of power 2. The Catholic Cathedral for the Archdioceses of Brisbane is called St. Stephens Cathedral 3 Who was St. Stephen? St Stephen was the first Martyr. He was stoned to death by a mob encouraged by St. Paul (King Saul) for speaking against the temple of Herod in Jerusalem and the law. He also was guilty of blasphemy against the names God and Moses. 4. The Catholic Archbishop of Brisbane is Archbishop John Bathersby 5. The times of masses at the cathedral are as follows: Sunday: 8:00 am 10:00 am Solemn Mass, 12:00 noon, 7:30 pm Monday – Friday: 8:00 am, 10:00 am, 12:30 pm, 5:10 pm Saturday: 11:30 am, 6:00 pm 6. St. Stephens Cathedral was built in 1874 7. The little chapel beside St. Stephens Cathedral is called Pugin Chapel and was built in 1848. 8. What was the original purpose of the stained glass windows in the churches? The purpose of the windows is to show significant historical events of importance. For example there are images of Jesus birth, the Crucifixion and depict images of the Saints. They are not just there for informative purposes but to ... ... on the person’s particular faith example a Jewish person would belong to a synagogue where Christians belong to a Church or Cathedral. Another misconception of the meaning of church is that it is a society which engages in the rectification of social wrongs. This is a misconception because the church is designed to enhance spiritual development and to follow the teachings of God as a parish community. The nature of churches allows people to contribute to the ceremony. Churches allow input by any member to develop the service. 6.0 Conclusion In conclusion it has been discovered that there are many varieties of art and architecture that make Australian churches unique. Also noted is that many people have different meanings for what a church is. We also saw how important it was to belong to a Catholic Parish and how important it is to work as Catholic Community. Report on the Art and Architecture of the Cathedral of St. Stephen in A 1.0 Introduction The purpose of this report is to outline the art and architecture of the Cathedral of St. Stephen and compare it to other churches around the world. It is also designed to analyse the aspects of St. Stephen’s architecture and its attempts to capture some of the unique experiences of people in Australia. Also analysed was how a Catholic community can impact the identity of its parishioner as well as the importance of belonging to a Catholic parish. The report finally concludes by looking at different universal understandings on the meaning what is a church. 2.0 Survey 1. The word cathedral means: The seed of power 2. The Catholic Cathedral for the Archdioceses of Brisbane is called St. Stephens Cathedral 3 Who was St. Stephen? St Stephen was the first Martyr. He was stoned to death by a mob encouraged by St. Paul (King Saul) for speaking against the temple of Herod in Jerusalem and the law. He also was guilty of blasphemy against the names God and Moses. 4. The Catholic Archbishop of Brisbane is Archbishop John Bathersby 5. The times of masses at the cathedral are as follows: Sunday: 8:00 am 10:00 am Solemn Mass, 12:00 noon, 7:30 pm Monday – Friday: 8:00 am, 10:00 am, 12:30 pm, 5:10 pm Saturday: 11:30 am, 6:00 pm 6. St. Stephens Cathedral was built in 1874 7. The little chapel beside St. Stephens Cathedral is called Pugin Chapel and was built in 1848. 8. What was the original purpose of the stained glass windows in the churches? The purpose of the windows is to show significant historical events of importance. For example there are images of Jesus birth, the Crucifixion and depict images of the Saints. They are not just there for informative purposes but to ... ... on the person’s particular faith example a Jewish person would belong to a synagogue where Christians belong to a Church or Cathedral. Another misconception of the meaning of church is that it is a society which engages in the rectification of social wrongs. This is a misconception because the church is designed to enhance spiritual development and to follow the teachings of God as a parish community. The nature of churches allows people to contribute to the ceremony. Churches allow input by any member to develop the service. 6.0 Conclusion In conclusion it has been discovered that there are many varieties of art and architecture that make Australian churches unique. Also noted is that many people have different meanings for what a church is. We also saw how important it was to belong to a Catholic Parish and how important it is to work as Catholic Community.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essays --

Education is very important for human life. It becomes main necessity for human beings. Almost all aspects of life are influenced by education. A human is introduced to education started from born, and it keeps going on until the death. If a human has a good basic education, it will be easy for the next development. Human will be easily accept and adapt their self with new education which more advanced. They can accept values in social life, school, family, and environment. Moreover, of course they will be smart and be respectful human. Sometimes, education is regarded as a sign whether a human is in high class or not. It influences a lot of areas in human life, for example; in the world of work, in getting money, in communicating with others, and in adapting human in this more modern era and advanced technology. First, education influences the world of work. Human are demanded to have skill in its sector. Usually a company conduct interview before recruiting employee. In recruitment process, there are some questions that related to level of education background. Having good quality in education will help a human to get wanted job and of course with balance income. A human who has high level education will get good job easier than a human who has not good education. Moreover, to get a job is very difficult. It shows that education has important role in the world of work. Secondly, education helps human in getting money. Educated human are more useful and easier in getting money because they have something that can be sold. Just by using the skill, they can get money. Furthermore, they do not need to work powerfully because they work use their brain. It is different with an uneducated human. Uneducated human usually work by using ... ...ality of education because that is very helpful in increasing human’s quality. Therefore, education is very important in the survival of a human because it affects many aspects of life. It can be gotten from formal institute and informal institute. However, many human prefer to choose formal education. Usually it is started from elementary school until university. It has big role in forming good personality, such as; responsibility, honesty, and attitude. Responsibility is important thing that must be belonged to every human. Then, honesty comes from the heart. The price of it is very expensive and it cannot be changed by everything. Next is about attitude, it relates to human’s behavior. Attitude cannot be kept hiding because it comes out spontaneously. Human do not need to be worried if they have good habit in behavior, because a good habit shows a good attitude.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Soccer history :: essays research papers

Games similar to soccer were played in China as early as 400 B.C. In 200 A.D. the Romans played a game in which 2 teams tried to score by advancing the ball across a line on a field, which means no soccer goals. They passed the ball to one another, but not by kicking it. Also in the 1100's, London children played a form of soccer (World Book Encyclopedia, S p.73).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the early 1800's, many English schools played a game that resembled soccer. Players added many rules that changed the game, and each school interpreted them differently. In 1848, a group of school representatives met at Trinity College in Cambridge and drew up the first set of soccer rules (Brooks Clark, 1993). In 1863, representatives of English soccer clubs founded the English football clubs found the English Football Association. Soccer began to spread throughout the world in the late 1800's. By 1900, associations had been established in Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. In 1904, the national associations founded the Federation Internationle de Futbol Association. Soccer was made an official Olympic sport in 1908. The Canadian Soccer Association was established in 1912, and the United States Soccer Federation was set up in 1913. The first World Cup was played, in 1913, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Since then, the World Cup has been held every four years, except during World War II (1929-1945), when the games were suspended.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Indoor soccer began in 1939, was formed by Major Indoor Soccer League, it started so people could play during the winter months. The North American Soccer League had its own indoor league from 1979-1984. Some of the differences from outdoor soccer are: there were only five players on the field and the goalkeeper, the goals are smaller, and the field is smaller. The field is like a hockey rink with astro-turf field surrounded with Plexiglas. The soccer goals are also built into the wall. This is a very fast paced game with four periods of 15 minutes each. In the United States, major league professional soccer has attracted little interest from the fans. Either indoor or outdoor proved to be successful, even with stars coming from Europe and Latin America. American Soccer League was the longest running professional league in the United States soccer history, going from 1921 to 1984. The North American Soccer League only existed until 1985. Some of the worlds' greatest players competed in this league, such as Michael Platani and Giorgio Chinaglia.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Persuasive Essay, the Player, All Realities Are Fictitious Essay

Our world consists of many realties. Two being commercial, and the other, artistic. A commercial reality is one of indulgence, and pleasure, always aiming to suit those who yearn for it. Artistic reality however, is open to interpretation. This means there are many possible outcomes. One could be saddened or depressed by the reality, and others, joyful. It is because of this uncertainty in artistic realities that the film industry, as well as many other industries, have taken it upon themselves to glorify the truth. It is because of the clashing of these two realities, that reality as a whole becomes difficult to interpret. The statement that every reality is fictitious, is rather bold however. Although in numbers, there are a few people who hold very strong moral and have a sense of quality in what they do. The Hollywood film industry is entirely commercial. Offering little or no interest in writers work that consists of depth, moral and truth. This reality consumes those considered as naive to the industry. Commercial realities are realities that are created by people who want to escape their own and subconsciously create a reality that is deemed impossible in the â€Å"real† world. Commercial realities are attractive to most, because you can experience something otherwise unimaginable. It is us, the audience of massive Hollywood productions, that show true appreciation of films made by producers who show no other interest than creating fictional nonsense and profiting from us . The film making industry is created by artificial characters living paranormal lives that we aspire to have. However, who can jump from a 4 story building and land on the ground with no injury? Who can be stabbed and instantly heeled by only a bandage and continue battling the world with heroic attributes and a vision to sustain â€Å"humanity as we know it† Commercial realities are fictitious, and it leaves us dreaming of a better life, and fantasizing over it. Many of our youth are involved in lives that are run by action, violence, recklessness and stupidity. A contrasting reality to those of commercial is that of artistic. This reality has deeper meaning to it, and value. Artistic reality may be generally defined as the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Artistic reality is better known as ‘realism. ’ Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic Movement. Instead it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Artistic realities often reject changes wrought by Commercial Revolutions. Artistic realities reveal the truth, which means they may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Artists use their work as a form of expressionism, which is open to interpretation. They see true value in their oeuvre, as they see ordinary, everyday subjects as the depiction of naturalism. Many people attempt to depict things accurately, from either a visual, social or emotional perspective. Theatre Realism shares many stylistic choices with naturalism, including a focus on every day (middle-class) drama, colloquial speech, and mundane settings. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances. Often artistic realities can be labelled as fictitious. This is due to the majority of society being so consumed by commercial reality that they no longer can differentiate from commercial actually being fake, and artistic as being real. Commercial realities enhance the breeding of money. Commercial values manipulate the very anatomy of a natural, mundane reality. Commercially precious films of ‘reality’ have become the organ grinder’s monkeys of money. They are made to increase the generative value and staying in power of money, the power of money to breed money, to fertilize itself. They are not made to empower people and provide certain value. Artistic reality however, leaves no stone unturned. Realism sees no value in money, and it sees no reciprocal (mutual? Would this be better? ) material possession that could be exchanged for money. Artistic realities merely capture that which is tangible and accurate. Society may attempt to defend themselves by escaping this as it may be deeply depressing. It is the confusion of distinguishing between commercial and artistic realities that ultimately reduces both to nothing but fictitious mumbo jumbo that controls our lives. The difference between the two is huge, however difficult for ‘commoners’, or those not involved in the film industry, to interpret. Whether an individual comprises their lives of commercial or realistic values, these values can be labelled as fabricated or factual. The film industry’s repackaging and misrepresenting the truth to suit themselves is profitable. This profitability is their ultimate ruling guideline. If a film does not provide profits, the film was a total failure, regardless of its realism. Artistic realities are open to interpretation and provide a bit of freedom for people to choose the outcomes of scenarios. Painters, writers, film makers and news reporters are some of the main people involved in the way reality is interpreted because they are in the spotlight. Every one watches them, reads their papers or interperates their work. It is important for people to recognise that regardless of the message that is trying to be brought across, reality is subjective, and hence, it may appear fictitious to anyone apart from their maker. Commercial or artistic.

Monday, September 16, 2019

International Foods Essay

The International Food Group (IFG) was the largest purveyor of food products in the world. Since IFG went public in the 1980s they continued to grow while acquiring companies by the dozen each year. Some of the companies were competition that needed to be eliminated while others had good ideas which IFG liked. Josh’s company, Glow-Foods, fortunately had some ideas that attracted IFG. Josh, while not very important himself was asked to meet with John Ahern and Tonya James, manager if IT marketing. John and Tonya were impressed with Josh’s work at Glow-Foods using social networking and other multimedia to market Glow-Foods. His ability to reach the under-thirty demographic is what really impressed management at IFG. Tonya explained how IFG wanted Josh to help them reach the youth and young adult market with IT. Josh would get a team and whatever resources he needed to accomplish this. Weeks later Josh met his team to begin work. He first met with Tonya, who expressed her excitement in having Josh onboard. Tonya would be responsible for helping Josh work through the many obstacles she knew would lay ahead. The obstacles were within IT as well with the larger company as a whole. Tonya introduced Josh to Rick Visser, the chief technology officer. Rick was in charge of architecture, security, risk management and the technology roadmap. Rick quickly reminded him there are procedures must be followed. It did not take long for Josh to realize there might be a bit more obstacles than he would like. Moving from a smaller company like Glow-Foods to IFG meant drastic changes in the process. Initially issues began to surface slowly, starting with a polite email from Visser reminding the team that access to instant messaging and Facebook required prior approval from his group. Next a request to outline proposed work, with costs and benefits for the next fiscal year, beginning six months from now. Josh and his team were understandably frustrated since they had to be innovative and think outside the box while following a very restrictive process. Josh and his team  worked through the obstacles and come up with a three pronged marketing plan. First, using an interactive web site with real time responses from internal staff the company c ould connect directly to customers about new product development ideas. Second, reach out to different communities to gain insight into their needs to help guide future marketing plans and third, implement all these ideas on the cloud. This would allow for easy scalability while linking with the company databases. Several obstacles where mentioned immediately. What are the business values and initiatives? What if these customers don’t like our company or our products and say bad things about us? How do we handle these situations? There was also great concern about the cloud. IFG did not have the cloud in its architecture and there was a fear of having too much company information vulnerable to anyone on cyberspace. They also mentioned the cloud idea was tried a few years back and it did not go well. Josh needed to win support for his three-point plan to use technology to reach its customers. There are several avenues Josh can take. For the first item, I believe Josh can do several things to help alleviate fear of an interactive web site. One would be to reach out to others who may be doing something similar and get their feedback. Another would be to just lay out some basic procedures for getting negative fe edback. Chances are there will obviously be some for one reason or another; maybe the idea of coupons or refund programs could be looked into, although outside the IT realm, there could be others in the company who could help with this idea. The second talking point of reaching out to different communities did not appear to get a lot of push back. It may be that this idea can proceed with little resistance. The third and the most controversial talking point is the cloud. Josh would definitely have to work closely with Rick and come up with a cost effective plan that works for the company, at the same time will alleviate their fears of the â€Å"cloud†. A well laid out plan explaining the process, the risk management and the benefits of the cloud will help win support for this final point of his plan. In conclusion, in Josh’s own words he has hit the big time. While the company policies require a much more strict business process each of them needs and can be worked through. IT appears there was an initial conversation with John, where Tonya mentioned the enormous roadblocks that are present because of all the procedures in place. The team needed room to be creative while  still working within the system. John appeared to be receptive to further meetings to allow this to happen. Until then, while working within the system, Josh needs to adapt to the new business process, since resisting it will only hurt his cause for new IT marketing ideas. All of his talking points in his three pronged IT marketing attack were very good, Josh and his team need to be a bit more thorough and try their best to have answers to every possible situation. References McKeenm, James D., Smith, Heather A. IT Strategy: Issues and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Organizational Behavior in Multinational/Global Aviation Essay

Introduction Over the past few years the aviation industry has continued to face challenges on how well to manage the industry on both operational and management level in relation to interests of different stakeholders in the industry. Customers have increasingly demanded for better services while shareholders demand for more profits. With globalization of aviation industry, the market has become more competitive and demands the industry to be highly competitive to survive on the global market. This issue of global competition further complicates the achieving of customers, shareholders and other stakeholders needs by the industry. Thus, the industry needs to change its organization behavior and structure to overcome these new challenges. Studies show that industry performance is highly affected by its behavior. Dessler (2001) stresses this point when he points out that, organization behavior and structure determines the success of an industry. These new challenges has made the industry to rethink its business behavior, objective and aims coming up with strategies that has made the industry more successful than before. (Dessler, 2001) Globalization Globalization has had varied influences on policy making in the aviation industry, by influencing the making of key decisions in the industry. Globalization in this case has influenced economic policy making in aviation industry.   One of the effects or influence to economic policy making in aviation industry is that, it has made it more complex. According to top managers in aviation industry, globalization has made this policy making quite challenging due to the very many factors that are globally affecting it and the various needs of the different stakeholders that has to be fulfilled. Globalization has affected aviation industry in its decision making. This is because all the decisions made in this industry have to comply with international standards. This is so because globalization comes along with standards which all the industries have to adhere to. Decisions that are made in aviation industry also have to be according to international trade policies. Aviation industry faces big challenge in line with global competition and balancing of various stakeholders needs. (Dessler, 2001) Stakeholders Many times different stakeholders’ requirements do conflict, and at times the requirements of each group are not well understood. Balancing the requirement for the different groups in the industry becomes a challenge to the policy makers in the industry, many questions have to be asked before formulating a structure that can satisfy each individual group. Some of the questions asked when formulating policies are; How to balance the needs and know when trade-off can be applied How to analyze the needs to come up with a win-win resolution for all the concerned groups How do to conclude if the win-win- solution for each group is real possible Eventually economic and some other needs has to be included in the policy making process in relation to satisfying the various groups with a stake in the industry. Stakeholders and requirements The aviation industry like any other industry has nine basic or generic stakeholder groups with different class of people in each group. These groups are; (Cox, 2000) The government Board of directors Owners/ shareholders Management Executive Customer employees Suppliers Community We shall examine only four groups which are; owners, customers, employees, local environmental groups which are very important in the industry and how their individual needs are balanced. Shareholders Shareholders in an industry or a company are the owners of the industry; the capital invested in the industry comes from the shareholders who expect a reasonable return over the invested capital. Freiberg & Freiberg (1998) clearly states that, the objective of shareholders in an industry is mainly long term financial growth or short term financial gain in terms of dividends. The needs of shareholders may also include greater social enhancement, protecting the environment among other things. Shareholders basically put their financial capital in the business to have an opportunity of making money. (Freiberg & Freiberg, 1998) The executive management group in aviation industry is the one which is answerable to the shareholders in terms of results of the business, in a situation where the executive management to do produce positive results, the shareholders may replace the executive management or the shareholders may withdraw their money and invest it elsewhere. Any industry which is not well managed at the end it will have to collapse. The shareholders in the aviation industry basically expect the following from the industry; Long term financial returns (increase in relation to shareholders amount) Short term financial returns (dividends) Observance of social norms (environment and ethics) Freiberg, K., & Freiberg, J. (1998 Customers In any particular industry the most important group of stakeholders are the customers. Normally, customers demand high quality of services and a competitive price. (Legge, 2004) In order for the industry to realize profits it has to provide quality services at competitive pricing so that it attracts more customers to increase profitability of the industry. Supposing the level of profits falls and losses are made, the shareholders will complain. Thus, the challenge is to set prices and quality that can attract the customers and at the same time make profits that can sustain the industry. (Legge, 2004) Customer segment in this industry do not differ so much, customer will have different expectations from the industry and the executive managers will face different challenges in formulating ways to satisfy the varied requirements of the customer segment. One particular issue that has raised a lot of concern in the industry is the security issue. Ever since the September 11 terrorist attack in America, the concern of security in aviation industry has increased and all stakeholders and in particular the customers have demanded for high security and safety in the industry. (Legge, 2004) It is important that customers have to be listened to so that their needs are understood, in order to make improvements where possible, and where not possible customers be informed of the impossibility. Generally the industry is pursing customer requirements that are in line with the interests of other important stakeholders. Basically, customers’ demands in the aviation include; Improvement of the services the industry is providing especially in terms of security and safety Better competitive pricing A commitment of the industry to address their requirements (Legge, 2004) Employees This groups consists of all levels of employees who are down the executive management level, at times it may also include the upper middle level management, the middle level management, the supervisors and individual employees. The biggest concern of all employees in any industry is having good working condition, secure workplace and financial security. However, other requirements also exists that employees require. (Cox, 2000)   Basically employees require the following; Competitive salaries and benefits Job security Opportunities for career development and growth Safety Community The community though is a less formal stakeholder group in the industry, it is still important and it has a big influence on the industry. Yukl (2002) explains that, the community can either decide to support a business or not, depending on whether they concur with the way the business or industry is carrying out its activities. (Yukl, 2002) Yukl (2002) further explains that, the main interests of a community in any industry are safety of the environment, employment for the local community and cooperation from the industries in other community issues. Community members may become nuisance to the industry or be a support base for the industry depending on the relationships that exists between the industry and the community. The community has three main requirements which are; Environmental Economic Safety (Yukl, 2002) Balancing stakeholders needs The biggest issue thus is how to balance the various needs of the above mentioned stakeholders. It seems that there are three major issues or challenges that aviation industry faces in balancing the different requirement of the diverse stakeholders, this are underlined below; Identifying the specific main stakeholders in the industry in relation to different business situations Understanding the different needs and the main priorities that should be given to this needs Balancing the requirements which conflicts with each other (making trade-offs) (Cox, 2000) In order to solve the above challenges the industry has formulated a matrix formula, this has highly helped the industry in solving the challenges and in balancing requirements of each group of stakeholders. Generally using the matrix implies identifying the most important needs of each group of stakeholders. These are generally similar for each kind of stakeholders, for examples all customers will need better services and competitive prices, and all shareholders, whether ordinary of preferential will need high returns over their capital. To achieve this, the industry has undertaken different approaches to satisfy each group of stakeholders. (Cox, 2000) Balancing Shareholders needs The main aim of shareholders is to get good returns on their capital they have invested. To this end the industry has to attract more customers to achieve high profits so as to ensure high returns on the capital invested by the shareholders. This can be attained through prudent management and good policies and marketing to achieve high profits at the same time ensure that other stakeholders’ needs are taken care of. The industry has responded well by using new technologies in improving its services. The industry has utilized the use of online marketing and also incorporated the use of new technologies in production and operations activities which has resulted in significant increase in revenue and thus attained the shareholders goals. The industry generally has responded to globalization by redefining its services and expanding to new markets to increase its market share and hence profitability of the industry. (Larson, 1997) Balancing the needs of customers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Industry has continued to provide better services and at the most cost effective prices which have increased the number of passengers over the years. Another aspect that the industry has undertaken in relation to customer is improving security in airports, in the aircrafts and even coming up with better designed aircrafts and air fields which put safety/security of the customer as a first priority. (Phegan, 2000) Customer satisfaction is vital for the success of Aviation industry. Phegan (2000) points out that, with ever increasing competition on the global market those industries that focus on customer orientation and customer satisfaction have chances of maintaining and even improving their customer base. Customers remain the most important group which ensures survival of any industry. Aviation industry has clearly balanced the goals of the customer (in relation to customer loyalty, satisfaction, profitability and sales) compared to other industry stakeholder needs. A significant consideration the industry has undertaken is an overall altitude of organizational commitment to customer objectives, without taking this commitment customer satisfaction will have a very limited impact. Aviation industry has made strategic market plans, which includes, how the company should divide the market and which segments of the market the industry should focus on basing on the Aviation industry capabilities and or industry competencies.   Aviation industry has to have a clear consideration of how the customer satisfaction will be ultimately balance with other needs of other stakeholders. (Phegan, 2000) Balancing employees needs Today, employees are no more human resource to be exhausted but employees have become human capital, thus an asset to an organization that need to be protected and developed. Globalization has opened up new opportunities and employees have become more difficult to retain in an industry that is not competitive enough. To this end aviation industry has to undertake motivation as the main aspect of getting well qualified professional who can achieve the goals of the organization and even surpass them. (Robbins, 2004 Motivational practices To be able to be successful in the current global and domestic markets, motivation, for any organization’s workforce is a solution in realizing competitive advantage. Aviation industry therefore, has the ultimate function of retaining good staff members who are the main drivers of the industry. It takes a considerable amount of time to train an employee in the industry to attain better standards for any specific duty. To lose such an employee at any stage of the production process is suicidal for the industry. Specific emphasis is therefore taken into account to make sure that such employees are kept for as long as they are required. (Robbins, 2004) Better conditions for service and financial rewards are examples of measures applied to motivate employees within the industry. In addition the industry is motivating the employees in terms of annual, leave, insurance or shorter working periods. Aviation industry has set good employee wages to attract human capital in the industry. Top managers in aviation industry have provided information that is useful in the making of decisions for the Aviation industry with regard to balancing the amount of wages to be paid to employees and the actual financial situations for the industry in relation to other stakeholders. It must be noted that, employees play the most important part in realizing the targets of the industry. The aviation industry currently is among industry with well paid employees, this has ensured that the employees are satisfied and thus they can drive the industry to new heights and help it achieve the other stakeholders’ needs. (Robbins, 2004) Balancing community needs The issue of community social responsibility has become an important issue in the recent years. Today, many customers want to be associated with companies that have good community social responsibility policies, and many industries are realizing that for them to succeed they have to operate within community social responsibility framework. Many industries all over the world are adopting and practicing community social responsibility. At the same time the local communities have become more aware of their environment and demand industries to protect it. Aviation industry has balanced this need of the community by becoming more environmental conscious by focusing on ways of reducing environmental degradation issues such as global warming and pollution. It is possible for the industry to achieve this at the same time satisfy other stakeholders. The aviation industry also gives the local community a say in issues concerning environment management and employment to ensure peaceful coexistence that can enable the industry to grow without friction with the community. (Handy, 1985) Conclusion Different stakeholders have different needs in any industry, customer, shareholders, employees and the community remains important to the success of an industry. The aviation industry has a challenge in balancing these needs. The industry has undertaken changes in its organization behavior and its marketing policies to balance these needs. Some of the changes that the industry has undertaken are prudent management to satisfy the needs of the shareholders, high quality services and secure industry to respond to the needs of the customers, good remunerations and better working conditions to satisfy the employees and being more environmental conscious and taking more social responsibility to respond to the needs of the community. However, in this global era the industry will still be faced with challenge on how best to formulate policy decisions which can satisfy all needs of the various stakeholders in the industry.       Reference: Bartol, K, et al. (2005): Management: a pacific focus, 4th edition McGraw-Hill Book Company. Cox, B. (2000):   Southwest Airlines attributes profitability to treating customers, workers well. Fort worth Star-Telegram Dessler, G (2001): Management, leading people and organizations in the 21st century, Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey. Freiberg, K., & Freiberg, J. (1998):   Nuts! Southwest Airlines’ crazy recipe for business and personal success:   New York; Bantam Doubleday. Handy, C.B. (1985): Understanding Organizations, 3rd Edition, Harmond-sworth, Penguin Books, Larson, M. (1997):   Corporate culture is Southwest’s edge. Business Journal Serving Greater Sacramento, 13(43), 30 Legge, K (2004): Human Resource Management: Rhetoric and Realities. Anniversary Ed. Hampshire: Palgrave, Macmillan, Locke, E. A. (1976): The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Judge, T. A., & Watanabe, S. (1993): Another look at the job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 Robbins, S. P. (2004): Organizational Behavior – Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall Phegan, B. (2000): Developing Your Company Culture; a Handbook for Leaders and Managers, Context Press, Weick, K.E. (1979): The Social Psychology of Organizing 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill Yukl, G. (2002): Leadership in organizations (5th ed.); Prentice Hall.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Dialysis Patient Citizens Health Promotion Pamphlet Essay

Kidney failure is a life altering condition that significantly impacts the way an individual lives. According to â€Å"National Kidney Center† (2014), â€Å"Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affects 26 million Americans. Early detection can help to prevent progression of the disease – which ultimately can lead to kidney failure and death† (para. 1). If an individual is diagnosed with end stage renal disease (ESRD), the person must receive hemodialysis treatments to sustain life, or they will die. The Dialysis Patient Citizens (DPC) is a non-profit organization composed of dialysis and pre-dialysis patients. This 30,000 plus dialysis community advocates for the dialysis population to improve care, education, and support for people suffering from kidney disease (Dialysis Patient Citizens). The following material will critique the DPC’s pamphlet for layout, quality, clarity, literacy, and usefulness. Review of cultural sensitivity and self-care management in the p amphlet information will also occur. Layout appeal Layout appeal is crucial for a pamphlet as the layout appeal is what grabs the interest of an individual and entices the individual to pick up a brochure and read through it. The layout of the DPC pamphlet is neat, colorful, and clear. Each sub-heading is bold identifying the topic of information in the section. This booklet also provides pictures of individuals of various ethnicities, age, and sex signifying that kidney failure can affect anyone. A picture of the United States flag is also on the pamphlet. Content and quality Content and the quality of the pamphlet were well thought out and presented. The presentation for the content of the information shows organization and  flows throughout the pamphlet. Each sub-topic leads into the other and flows smoothly with culmination of the material formed in a summary and conclusion in the last paragraph. Presentation of the quality of material is neat, organized, and easy to follow. The booklet provides valuable, but concise information that is important to maintain the reader’s interest. The pamphlet has a limited amount of space to engage the reader and spark interest in the reader to investigate the organization further. Through a quality presentation, the DPC pamphlet captures the reader to research this organization more. Usefulness/Clarity The information found in this pamphlet is relevant and useful for dialysis patients. The DPC pamphlet speaks of empowering dialysis and pre-dialysis patients in managing their care and to have access to resources that will help the patient manage their care better. The clarity of the information provides the individual the opportunity to read quickly through and understand the information. Some of the relevant information are repeated in the pamphlet that provides the individual the chance to absorb and more fully understand the information. Reading and Literacy Level Prior to creating a pamphlet, or any literature emphasis should be on the intended audience. The Huffington post states that â€Å"According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (completed most recently in 2003, and before that, in 1992), 14 percent of adult Americans demonstrated a â€Å"below basic† literacy level in 2003, and 29 percent exhibited a â€Å"basic† reading level (para. 3). Establishing the audience prior to writing will allow the writer to communicate the information at the reading level of the intended audience. â€Å"The difference among audiences make it necessary to avoid the one-size fits-all mindset when developing effective health communication material† (CDC-Center for Disease Prevention: Health and Human Services, 2010, slide 3). The writing in the pamphlet was easy to read and understand. Most of the information was basic and did not contain any uncommonly used words. The words in the pamphlet are words that people use when communicating with each other on a regular basis. An example of a sentence according to â€Å"Improving our Lives through Empowerment (n.d.) â€Å"We provide information about dialysis care, help strengthen the partnership  between patients and caregivers, tell our lawmakers about the issues that matter to us and provide a strong community for our members† (Dialysis Patient Citizens). Cultural sensitivity and competence As mentioned earlier the brochure is culturally diverse as the information in the pamphlet does not suggest a specific culture. Pictures of the people contained in the pamphlet are of different ethnicity, race, age, and sex. This pamphlet speaks to the reader in a non-verbal way because the reader can identify with one of the individuals advertising in the pamphlet. The brochure announces that this organization is a â€Å"patient organization† therefore membership is restricted to dialysis patients, pre-dialysis patients, and families of dialysis patients (Dialysis Patient Citizens). The reason for this is that this allows the organization to maintain focus on dialysis interests and issues (Dialysis Patient Citizens). The Board of Directors for DPC are dialysis patients or former dialysis patients that have been the recipient of a transplant (Dialysis Patient Citizens). Helpful hints or tips for self-care management Information regarding the need for DPC and what joining this community will bring to the patient is evident. This community lists the important points of what the person will gain if they join. One of the recognizable points in this pamphlet is the declaration that there are educational tools available to help the members manage their health as efficiently as possible (Dialysis Patient Citizens). Also, the word advocate appears many times throughout the literature suggesting that this community wants to stress to the reader the importance of being your own advocate and also coming together to be one strong voice for this community. Publisher Distribution of the pamphlet is by the Dialysis Patient Citizens (DPC). There is no direct mention of the publisher. There is an address, phone number, email, and website address provided for this community. Conclusion The Dialysis Patient Citizens community is a community that wishes to expand its membership. By advertising and distributing this brochure, the community announces to the public that through their organization patients can improve  their education, advocacy, and voice within the dialysis population. This pamphlet is appealing to people that see it because of the layout, content, ease in reading, and concise presentation of material. This pamphlet does not discriminate against any race, ethnicity, sex, or age and, as a result, is culturally competent. Through the pamphlets ease in understanding the literature, dialysis patients are sure to comprehend the information and seek further into the opportunity presented before them. Reference Center for Disease Prevention (CDC): Health and Human Services. (2010). Simply Put: A guide for creating easy-to-understand materials [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Dialysis Patient Citizens (DPC). (n.d.). Improving our Lives through Empowerment. Huffington Post (2013). Retrieved from National Kidney Center (2014). disease/facts/

Friday, September 13, 2019

Do tax cuts increase tax revenues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Do tax cuts increase tax revenues - Essay Example 1). This measure has led to increased investment and job creation in the American market over the past few years. Cutting taxes may lead to increased or decreased revenue depending on the duration in which the tax cuts are applied. During an economic boom, an increase in taxes leads to increased revenue for a country. A tax increase may, however, harm the economy in the long run as people may feel the burden imposed on them and shy away from doing business in the country as noted by Sowell (2012, p. 7), an economist and senior fellow at the   Hoover Institution Stanford University Stanford, . This implies that increased taxes will increase revenue in the short run but decrease revenue will do so in the long run. For instance, when President Clinton’s administration got rid of trade tariffs on Chinese goods, the American market were flooded with Chinese goods. This led to an increase in business and consequently tax revenues increased. However, taxes paid by Americans increased to a level that many of them got discouraged from risking their money in business. This led to a recession whi ch the American economy suffers to-date. When taxes are low, many people do not feel the tax burden and are, therefore, encouraged to risk their money in business and are encouraged to comply with tax laws (Hungerford 2012). If many people invest in business and earn dividends, they will contribute a lot in revenue to the economy as opposed to if fewer people were involved (Sowell 2012, p.5). With a lower tax burden, people grow richer faster and consequently move to a higher tax brackets which mean increased revenue for the government. Furthermore, when more people invest, many of them grow richer and consequently pay more taxes which translates to more revenue. A specialist in public finance, Hungerford notes that the revenue generated by an economy that has lower tax rates is often much higher than that that generated by higher tax rates (Hungerford 2012, p. 15).

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Narrative Approaches in Short Stories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Narrative Approaches in Short Stories - Essay Example Nevertheless, it could not be avoided that perceptions of authors are differently expressed because of their genders. In the stories entitled â€Å"A Rose for Emily† and â€Å"Odour of Chrysanthemums†, such characteristics are portrayed by the authors. Therefore, this paper will look even further specifically at the biases, marginalization of women and sympathies of the authors as they are reflected in the aforementioned stories. â€Å"A Rose for Emily† is about an unfortunate woman who lived a miserable life. Being a member of the elite society, her actions and decisions have been greatly influenced by his father who did not want his name to be tarnished. Nevertheless, when he died, Emily was left alone and became involved with a worker who was expected to soon marry her. However, after their short romance, the man was believed to have abandoned Emily. When the woman finally died because of old age, it was revealed that the stink that has plagued the neighborhoo d about thirty years ago, was the cadaver of the man who was supposed to marry her, which was laid on her bed and was discovered showing the traces of hair and bones as proofs. The choice of using a fragile and dainty woman presented as a criminal shows bias on the part of the author. Since his female character is an unlikely personality to commit such a gruesome act like killing a person and having his cadaver stay in the room for years, it somehow portrays the perception that women, in their physical appearance, are as dangerous and/or even more treacherous than men. This suggests that women should not be trusted because behind their vulnerable appearances, they actually are precarious. On the other hand, â€Å"Odour of Chrysanthemums† narrates the story of a woman whose husband died in an accident, which explains why he has not gone home at the time he was expected to. However, the narration focuses more on the two women characters, the wife, and the mother-in-law. The wif e is shown to be indifferent toward the unexpected circumstance that they are faced with, being more concerned about the children being awakened by the commotion than the fuss she is expected to show over her husband’s death. The mother-in-law, on the other hand, has done nothing since her appearance but to cry and talk about how good her son was. The bias is quite obvious in the story because the male characters are shown to be minor actors who were just there to complete the actions that were expected to take place. On the contrary, the characterizations of the women have been magnified, reflecting the negative attitudes of women behind their obvious activities. On the marginalization of women, â€Å"A Rose for Emily† states that â€Å"the women mostly out of curiosity (went) to see the inside of her house† (Faulkner). Such declaration asserts that women are not really at the deceased house to show their last respect but to satisfy their curiosity. In addition , it says, â€Å"Only a man of Colonel Sartoris’ generation and thought could have invented it, and only a woman could have believed it† (Faulkner). The phrase â€Å"Only a man of Colonel Sartoris’ generation and thought† represents the old-fashioned and already non-existing characteristics of males. His generation which he represents is already gone and new generations which have better ideals have changed that old system. However, the next phrase, â€Å"and only a woman could have believed it†, speaks of women in general. This shows a separation between men and women.        Ã‚